Friday, March 20, 2020

Free Essays on The Fall of the House Of Usher

Poe uses the imagery and the life-like characteristics of an otherwise decaying house as a device for giving the house a supernatural atmosphere. For example, from the very beginning of the story, the reader can tell that there is something unusual and almost supernatural about the building. As the narrator approaches the home of his long-time friend, Roderick Usher, he refers to the house as the â€Å"melancholy House of Usher†(1508). Upon looking at the building, he even describes the feeling he has as â€Å"a sense of insufferable gloom pervading my spirit†(1508). The windows appear to be â€Å"vacant,† and â€Å"eye-like† and the narrator goes on to observe the â€Å"rank sedges,† and the â€Å"black and lurid tarn,†(1509) in which he sees the reflection of the house. He later says, â€Å"when I again uplifted my eyes to the house itself, from its image in the pool, there grew a strange fancy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (1509). This statement indicates that perhaps the house does indeed have supernatural characteristic. The narrator ! observes the details of the house once more and finds that the house has fungi growing all over it and the masonry of the building is decaying. He says, â€Å" there appeared to be a wild inconsistency between its still perfect adaptation of parts, and the utterly porous, and evidently decayed condition of the individual stones†(1510). This observation suggests that perhaps something supernatural is holding the house intact; otherwise it would have fallen to the ground long ago. Upon entering the house, the narrator sees the inside of the house as well as the odd behavior and personality of its inhabitants and is increasingly convinced that the house has some supernatural effect on those who live there. Upon meeting Usher, the narrator remarks, â€Å"†¦the physique of the gray walls and the turrets, and of the dim tarn into which they all looked down, had at length, brought about upon the morale of his existence† (1512). The narrat... Free Essays on The Fall of the House of Usher Free Essays on The Fall of the House of Usher The Doom of Usher’s House The human mind naturally receives images of the frightening or even appalling. In the tale â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher† by Edgar Allan Poe, the narrator is brought into an eerie world â€Å"DURING the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn† (204). The setting of this world inspires devastation for Roderick Usher and his twin sister, Madeline. This sense of doom shows throughout the House of Usher, the interior and exterior of the house, the landscape surrounding the mansion, and the strange tempestuous atmosphere of the house. The House of Usher generates a sense of doom by its appearance as the narrator approaches. â€Å"The vacant and eye-like windows† of the manor first give the impression that the house is a large face. A minute fungus overspreads the whole exterior, hanging like web-work from the attic. The narrator can also see a barely distinguishable crack extending from the roof down into the pond. As the narrator crosses the threshold of the house into the gothic archway, he sees carvings on the ceiling, gloomy tapestries hanging on the walls, â€Å"ebon blackness of the floors, and large phantasmagoric armorial trophies. The rooms are very large and lofty, the general furniture profuse, comfortless, antique, and dilapidated† (205). Paintings hanging on the walls give the narrator a shudder every time he views the depressive scenarios. There is also a vault at a great depth below the mansion, a portion of the vaults floor and the whole interior of the long archway are sheathed with copper, the chamber is very small, damp, and entirely without means of admission for light. Even the door is made of massive iron and placed on great hinges that grind and make an awful noise as the narrator and Roderick open it. The landscape around the mansion is doomed, which leads to the land being full of sadness and decay. The house appears on a landscape of â€Å"a few rank sedges and u... Free Essays on The Fall Of The House Of Usher Poe uses the imagery and the life-like characteristics of an otherwise decaying house as a device for giving the house a supernatural atmosphere. For example, from the very beginning of the story, the reader can tell that there is something unusual and almost supernatural about the building. As the narrator approaches the home of his long-time friend, Roderick Usher, he refers to the house as the â€Å"melancholy House of Usher†(1508). Upon looking at the building, he even describes the feeling he has as â€Å"a sense of insufferable gloom pervading my spirit†(1508). The windows appear to be â€Å"vacant,† and â€Å"eye-like† and the narrator goes on to observe the â€Å"rank sedges,† and the â€Å"black and lurid tarn,†(1509) in which he sees the reflection of the house. He later says, â€Å"when I again uplifted my eyes to the house itself, from its image in the pool, there grew a strange fancy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ (1509). This statement indicates that perhaps the house does indeed have supernatural characteristic. The narrator ! observes the details of the house once more and finds that the house has fungi growing all over it and the masonry of the building is decaying. He says, â€Å" there appeared to be a wild inconsistency between its still perfect adaptation of parts, and the utterly porous, and evidently decayed condition of the individual stones†(1510). This observation suggests that perhaps something supernatural is holding the house intact; otherwise it would have fallen to the ground long ago. Upon entering the house, the narrator sees the inside of the house as well as the odd behavior and personality of its inhabitants and is increasingly convinced that the house has some supernatural effect on those who live there. Upon meeting Usher, the narrator remarks, â€Å"†¦the physique of the gray walls and the turrets, and of the dim tarn into which they all looked down, had at length, brought about upon the morale of his existence† (1512). The narrat... Free Essays on The Fall of the House Of Usher One of the core themes of the short story, â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher†, is that of the nature of the house itself. The manner it is described and the way it is so puzzling. Another main theme of this tale is the nature of the people that reside in the dwelling. They are described in nearly the same manner all through the narrative. In that way, they have several things in common with one other. What is clearly similar about the way all these things are refered to is the sense of a bad feeling, of dread, showing how bad things are for the people and the house. These similarities are laid out extremely well in the story and I believe they are meant be strongly considered when reading it. At the start of the tale there is a very negative feeling being connected to the appearance of the house. Poe especially uses a couple of tactics to try and make you feel negatively about the house. He used phrases such as: â€Å"insufferable gloom,† â€Å"vacant,† â€Å"black and lurid,† and the â€Å"rank sedges.† These are obviously meant to convey a bad connotation to the house. Poe writes that the house has a â€Å"wild inconsistency† and describes that each individual stone is starting to decay and fall apart. This suggests that the house has many problems that could possibly lead to the destruction of a house. Its hard to pick up this as foreshadowing, but as the reader continues the story it becomes clearer and clearer. The house has a kind of gothic feeling to it. Another common word used in describing the house is ghostly. The story is lined with phrases such as, â€Å"through many dark and intricate passages† and â€Å"ebon blackn ess† which also set the sense of darkness. They all set up the idea that some frightful event is going to take place soon. These devices, along with a some others, help to connect the house to Roderick and Lady Madeline. When the speaker first sees Roderick after a long interval of time, he remarks that he resemb...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

3 Steps to Becoming a Successful Admin Professional

3 Steps to Becoming a Successful Admin Professional Admins are a pretty competent and put together demographic. But we all have our own particular weaknesses- some we’re aware of, some we’re not! No matter your career stage, it never hurts to do a little self-assessment and see what can be improved.Step 1: Assess Your StyleEverybody has their own particular organizational style. Some people make lists. Some people clear out their inbox and sort messages into folders every hour on the hour. Some people have a gnarl of papers on their desk, but always know how to find the one they need! You may be a neat and tidy pile person, and you may not.There are great tests available online to self-assess. But no matter what you do, figuring out what works and doesn’t work for you is an important first step to figuring out what can and should be improved.Step 2: Build Your ToolboxThis is easier said than done, and does require a thorough investigation into Step 1. But once you know your weak areas, it will be much easier to fi nd and hone the tools to help you get them back up to snuff. Google and your trusted friends are a great resource here. So are colleagues whose organization systems you find awe-inspiring. A casual, â€Å"Hey, you have any strategies for file creep you feel like sharing?† People love to brag about how well they do things. They’ll never realize you just cried for help.Step 3: Know the CostIf you don’t shore up your weak spots, you could be wasting lots of your own time, your boss’s time, your company’s money. You could let things slip through the cracks and then forget them. Even if you don’t make any big mistakes, you might be constantly worried that you might, and that stress just isn’t worth it. Better to plug up all the holes in the boat and go forth with confidence that you’re steering it straight and true.Having good- no, great organization can only help you. It will build your reputation and respect level among your cowor kers and supervisors, and will keep you calm and confident in the fact that you’re aces at your job.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Jewish Holy Days Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Jewish Holy Days - Essay Example This is due to the fact that all non-Israelite firstborns were to be killed by an angel of death sent by God. However, in order for the spirit to distinguish in which houses to inflict death, all the Israelites were advised to slaughter a lamb and mark their doors with its blood such that the spirit would pass over their homes and go to those which were unmarked (Strassfeld, 2001). In this light, they were ordered to ensure that all the meat from the lamb was roasted and eaten without leaving any sign of it (August, 2000). While at it, they were to pack all their belongings i.e. the portable ones in readiness to embark on the exodus once the pharaoh had accepted to release them. The journey they were about to start was one which did give these people ample time to prepare as it was only in a one night notice and as such, most of the food especially bread was half or totally unleavened and they had to carry it in that state else risk starvation especially due to the fact that most of the terrain on their path was a desert. This was also informed by the fear that once their release was sanctioned, there was a possibility that pharaoh would change his mind and thus, they had to leave in a hurry and as quickly as possible. During the Passover night, the angel of death came as promised and killed all the firstborns in homes belonging to non-Israelites and in the aftermath, Pharaoh agreed to let the Israelites free but as they had anticipated, he changed his mind and sent soldiers to bring them back but by then, Moses and his people had already crossed the red sea (August, 2000). The Passover celebrations are conducted beginning on the 15th day on the month of Nissan, which coincides with the months of March or April on the Gregorian calendar, and runs for 7 to 8 days (Strassfeld, 2001). During this period, believers observe various norms and festivities, most of which are symbolic expressions of the Passover night at the time of exodus. For example, all the househol ds are required to dispose all the chametz in their belonging by way of destroying it completely, or giving it out to non Jews with the intention of reacquiring it after the festivities. Chametz refers to the food items which are mostly products of grain, and which have undergone fermentation. Prior to the commencement of the holy day, households usually embark on a cleanup exercise aimed at removing any traces of chametz, including any utensils that have been used to prepare it, after which thorough inspection is conducted. This in itself symbolizes the unleavened bread that the Israelites carried from Egypt and also the removal of arrogance in the souls of the believers. Instead of chametz, the Jews feast on Matzoh i.e. a mixture of flour and water cooked quickly before 18 minutes are over. This is due to the assumption that dough starts rising within 18 minutes if it is left uncooked thereby becoming chametz (Strassfeld, 2001). The fast of the firstborns is also one of the activi ties associated with Jewish Passover (Sper, 2003). In this regard, all the firstborns are supposed to participate in commemoration of the fact that they were rescued from the wrath of the angel of death. The fasting is conducted on the day before Passover and is only an obligation of those firstborn males of 13 years and above, which is the most agreed age of halakhic adulthood.

Jewish Holy Days Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Jewish Holy Days - Essay Example This is due to the fact that all non-Israelite firstborns were to be killed by an angel of death sent by God. However, in order for the spirit to distinguish in which houses to inflict death, all the Israelites were advised to slaughter a lamb and mark their doors with its blood such that the spirit would pass over their homes and go to those which were unmarked (Strassfeld, 2001). In this light, they were ordered to ensure that all the meat from the lamb was roasted and eaten without leaving any sign of it (August, 2000). While at it, they were to pack all their belongings i.e. the portable ones in readiness to embark on the exodus once the pharaoh had accepted to release them. The journey they were about to start was one which did give these people ample time to prepare as it was only in a one night notice and as such, most of the food especially bread was half or totally unleavened and they had to carry it in that state else risk starvation especially due to the fact that most of the terrain on their path was a desert. This was also informed by the fear that once their release was sanctioned, there was a possibility that pharaoh would change his mind and thus, they had to leave in a hurry and as quickly as possible. During the Passover night, the angel of death came as promised and killed all the firstborns in homes belonging to non-Israelites and in the aftermath, Pharaoh agreed to let the Israelites free but as they had anticipated, he changed his mind and sent soldiers to bring them back but by then, Moses and his people had already crossed the red sea (August, 2000). The Passover celebrations are conducted beginning on the 15th day on the month of Nissan, which coincides with the months of March or April on the Gregorian calendar, and runs for 7 to 8 days (Strassfeld, 2001). During this period, believers observe various norms and festivities, most of which are symbolic expressions of the Passover night at the time of exodus. For example, all the househol ds are required to dispose all the chametz in their belonging by way of destroying it completely, or giving it out to non Jews with the intention of reacquiring it after the festivities. Chametz refers to the food items which are mostly products of grain, and which have undergone fermentation. Prior to the commencement of the holy day, households usually embark on a cleanup exercise aimed at removing any traces of chametz, including any utensils that have been used to prepare it, after which thorough inspection is conducted. This in itself symbolizes the unleavened bread that the Israelites carried from Egypt and also the removal of arrogance in the souls of the believers. Instead of chametz, the Jews feast on Matzoh i.e. a mixture of flour and water cooked quickly before 18 minutes are over. This is due to the assumption that dough starts rising within 18 minutes if it is left uncooked thereby becoming chametz (Strassfeld, 2001). The fast of the firstborns is also one of the activi ties associated with Jewish Passover (Sper, 2003). In this regard, all the firstborns are supposed to participate in commemoration of the fact that they were rescued from the wrath of the angel of death. The fasting is conducted on the day before Passover and is only an obligation of those firstborn males of 13 years and above, which is the most agreed age of halakhic adulthood.

Jewish Holy Days Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Jewish Holy Days - Essay Example This is due to the fact that all non-Israelite firstborns were to be killed by an angel of death sent by God. However, in order for the spirit to distinguish in which houses to inflict death, all the Israelites were advised to slaughter a lamb and mark their doors with its blood such that the spirit would pass over their homes and go to those which were unmarked (Strassfeld, 2001). In this light, they were ordered to ensure that all the meat from the lamb was roasted and eaten without leaving any sign of it (August, 2000). While at it, they were to pack all their belongings i.e. the portable ones in readiness to embark on the exodus once the pharaoh had accepted to release them. The journey they were about to start was one which did give these people ample time to prepare as it was only in a one night notice and as such, most of the food especially bread was half or totally unleavened and they had to carry it in that state else risk starvation especially due to the fact that most of the terrain on their path was a desert. This was also informed by the fear that once their release was sanctioned, there was a possibility that pharaoh would change his mind and thus, they had to leave in a hurry and as quickly as possible. During the Passover night, the angel of death came as promised and killed all the firstborns in homes belonging to non-Israelites and in the aftermath, Pharaoh agreed to let the Israelites free but as they had anticipated, he changed his mind and sent soldiers to bring them back but by then, Moses and his people had already crossed the red sea (August, 2000). The Passover celebrations are conducted beginning on the 15th day on the month of Nissan, which coincides with the months of March or April on the Gregorian calendar, and runs for 7 to 8 days (Strassfeld, 2001). During this period, believers observe various norms and festivities, most of which are symbolic expressions of the Passover night at the time of exodus. For example, all the househol ds are required to dispose all the chametz in their belonging by way of destroying it completely, or giving it out to non Jews with the intention of reacquiring it after the festivities. Chametz refers to the food items which are mostly products of grain, and which have undergone fermentation. Prior to the commencement of the holy day, households usually embark on a cleanup exercise aimed at removing any traces of chametz, including any utensils that have been used to prepare it, after which thorough inspection is conducted. This in itself symbolizes the unleavened bread that the Israelites carried from Egypt and also the removal of arrogance in the souls of the believers. Instead of chametz, the Jews feast on Matzoh i.e. a mixture of flour and water cooked quickly before 18 minutes are over. This is due to the assumption that dough starts rising within 18 minutes if it is left uncooked thereby becoming chametz (Strassfeld, 2001). The fast of the firstborns is also one of the activi ties associated with Jewish Passover (Sper, 2003). In this regard, all the firstborns are supposed to participate in commemoration of the fact that they were rescued from the wrath of the angel of death. The fasting is conducted on the day before Passover and is only an obligation of those firstborn males of 13 years and above, which is the most agreed age of halakhic adulthood.

Monday, February 3, 2020

What role does assessment play in the teaching and learning of Essay

What role does assessment play in the teaching and learning of Mathematics - Essay Example n the universe understands the progress that they have to make in learning and they can only improve on their learning capabilities if they receive the support that they need in this process (DCSF 2008, p. 3). Ideally, many students consider mathematics to be one of the hardest subjects within a learning curriculum hence influencing the need for motivating students to improve on this perceived weak subject. The assessment process, especially on mathematics can be on a daily, transitional or on a periodic basis in which the findings of the assessment may be shared between the students, parents and the teachers (CERI 2008, p. 1). With this, this essay will delve into the roles in which assessment plays in the teaching and learning of mathematics through the formative and summative assessment strategies. Further, the focus of the essay will also be on exploring the relationship between teaching practice, policies and theories while applying views of the various stakeholders in the learning process. Ideally, formative assessment tends to be a variety of assessment tools in which teachers apply within the learning process as a way of improving the results of the students in teachers may have to making changes to their teaching curricula. The most principle aspects in this assessment form is that it makes use of feedback rather than the scores of the students whose main objective is focusing on the course contents and improved performance of the students (Sammons 2009, p. 110). On the other hand, summative assessment refers to the assessment tool in which learners have to sit for tests after a period of time in which the teacher marks the test and gives scores as per the performance of the learners (Kennedy, Tipps & Johnson 2008, p. 105). The basic component in this is that summative assessment tends to summarize the learnt aspects up to the point of testing and does not influence the improvement of the performance of the students. `Learning tends to draw influence

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Predicting Individual differences in Mindfulness

Predicting Individual differences in Mindfulness Predicting Individual differences in Mindfulness: The role of Trait Anxiety, Openness and Parental Nurturance  ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­ Abstract Mindfulness is a way of paying attention, intentionally and without judgement to the present moment. Mindfulness training has shown impressive outcomes in a number of areas such as depression and pain reduction; however, the literature has failed to account for natural, individual differences in levels of mindfulness. This research provides an exploration of the variables: Trait Anxiety, Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance and their ability to predict individual differences in Mindfulness. 123 participants each completed four questionnaires: The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess Trait Anxiety, the NEO-FFI was used to measure Openness to Experience, the Parental Nurturance Inventory was used to measure Parental Nurturance, and Mindfulness was assessed using the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Partially consistent with the predictions, Trait Anxiety was shown to negatively predict Mindfulness, Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance where n ot as strong predictors of Mindfulness. Key Terms: Mindfulness, Trait Anxiety, Openness, Parental Nurturance. Introduction Mindfulness is a way of paying attention, intentionally and without judgement to the present moment. The practice of Mindfulness originated in East India and is at the heart of Buddhist meditation. According to Kabat-Zinn (1994, 4) ‘This kind of attention nurtures greater awareness, clarity, and acceptance of present-moment reality’. A lack of or reduced awareness to the present-moment, however, has the opposite affect which results in fear driven ‘unconscious and automatic actions and behaviours’. Continuing in this pattern of diminished awareness results in erosion to ones confidence and hinders the possibility of a life of satisfaction, health and happiness (Kabat-Zinn, 1994). Traditionally, Mindfulness was viewed as a spiritual practice, heavily steeped in Buddhism; however, more recently this practice has been widely encouraged in the western society (Baer, 2003). According to Baer (2003) there are two main Mindfulness training programmes namely the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Programme and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. Other therapies such as Dialectical Behaviour Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Relapse Prevention incorporate principles of Mindfulness into the programme. Most Mindfulness training programmes run for a serious of 8-10 weeks, with a one day a week group meeting which is held for approximately 2 hours. Clients are also required to do homework session including 45 minutes per day, 6 days a week. Evidence suggests that Mindfulness-based training intervention is effective. Research indicates that Mindfulness-based training is effective in working with borderline personality disorder, mood disorders, pain, generalised anxiety disorder, stress, alcohol and substance abuse, and eating disorders (Baer, 2003; Roemer, 2002; Williams, Teasdale, Segal, Soulsby, 2000; Witkiewitz, Marlatt, Walker, 2005; Woodman, Noyes, Black, Schlosser, Yagia, 1999; Zettle Rains, 1989). Without any way of accurately, and objectively measuring levels of Mindfulness, positive findings were attributed to the training alone. Brown and Ryan (2003), however, proposed that individual differences may account for differences in levels of Mindfulness. The introduction of a measure for Mindfulness has made room for researchers to explore this proposal in greater depth. The present study attempts to explore a question: to what extent do individual differences influence levels of Mindfulness. The literature highlights three such individual differences that may be of interest: Trait Anxiety, Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance. The experience of anxiety is one that is familiar to most people; and Kaplan and Sadock (1998) describe the related symptoms as including an uneasy feeling followed by automatic responses such as headaches, perspiring and tightness in the chest. Trait anxiety, as apposed to state anxiety, is a persistent and does not wane in less stressful times. These researchers identify anxiety as having two components, namely awareness to the physiological sensations and awareness to being afraid. These experiences often lead to feelings of embarrassment, and in order to feel justified for the anxiety, people tend to focus on certain, conforming aspects of the environment and overlooking others. As a result of this bias to attention, a person is unable to experience the presence as a whole. Trait Anxiety is therefore expected to have an inverse relationship with Mindfulness. Openness to Experience is one of the five main personality domains and is described by McCrae and John (1992) as encompassing such things as imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, awareness of inner feelings, an inclination towards variety, and intellectual curiosity. Individuals who score high on this scale tend to be motivated to discover their environment, ask questions and have a readiness to question authority. As such, it is hypothesized that a high level of Openness to Experience would be a positive predictor of Mindfulness, since these individuals approach their environment with awareness, which is not clouded by judgment. The manner in which a parent responds to their child in the first years of his or her life has a far reaching impact on their adult life, affecting their relationships, both intimate, social and professional, how they interpret information given to them from the environment and whether or not they view the world as a safe place, and whether or not people are trust worthy (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, Target, 2005). According to this theory of attachment, Parental Nurturance is also an important factor in determining an individual’s ability to contain his or her own emotions. From this, it is hypothesised that positive Parental Nurturance will be a good predictor of Mindfulness as individuals are able to be present in their environment in a trusting, non-judgmental way. The present study explores the predictive value of these variables for increased levels of Mindfulness. In light of the literature, it is thought that a low level of Trait Anxiety will have an inverse relationship with Mindfulness, and that Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance will be positive predictors of Mindfulness. Method Design and Measures For the purpose of the present research study, a cross-sectional, correlational design was adopted. Information was thereby elicited from people in a number of different conditions, namely Trait Anxiety, Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance (independent variables), and the dependent variable of Mindfulness. The following measures where used: Spielberger’s (1983) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess Trait component of Anxiety. The STAI is designed to measure and distinguish between anxiety as a trait or as a state. Trait anxiety is a relatively stable personality trait and is marked by feelings of apprehension and tension, which is heightened in times of perceived threat. State anxiety, however, fluctuates and is heightened at times of stress and low in less stressful periods. This is a self-report, four-point rating scale, including 20 statements that ask people to describe how they feel at a particular moment. A high score is indicative of a high level of Trait Anxiety. Costa and McCrae’s (1991) NEO-FFI was used to assess Openness to Experience. This is a 60-item version of the NEO PI-R, which measures only the five factors of adult personality, however for the purpose of this study, only the twelve-item scale assessing Openness was employed. This is measure makes use of a five-point rating scale, where participants demonstrated the degree of agreement with given statements. A high score on this scale is indicative of a high level of Openness. Buri’s (1989) Parental Nurturance scale was used to assess this component of the study. This is a self-report, five-point Likert scale, where participants are required to describe positive and negative aspects of the parental nurturance they received. This is repeated twice, once for information pertaining to the mother and the second time for information relating to the father’s nurturance. An average of these combined scores is used as a final result, with a high score indicative of elevated levels of Parental Nurturance. Mindfulness was measured using the FMI (Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmuller, Kleinknecht, Schmidt, 2006). This is a short scale, 14-item, self-report measure, requiring participants to indicate their degree of agreement with a given, mindfulness direct statement. A high score on this measure is indicative of elevated levels of Mindfulness. Procedures, Participants and Ethics Participants were purposively sampled and personally invited by written invitation to participate in this study. Of the initial 153 participants, 123 were included in the present study. A detailed outline of the nature and details of the study, including a description of what would be required of them was provided in the initial invitation. Participants were assigned to one of three separated testing groups. On receiving consent, participants were handed a package of four questionnaires (STAI, NEO-FFI, Parental-Nurturance Inventory, FMI). Each questionnaire was marked with separate instructions for completion. Each participant completed the pack of questionnaires in the same order. Results Reliability of Measures A reliability analysis of the questionnaires was conducted, yielding satisfactory results indicating that the participants responded in a consistent manner to the questionnaires. The reliability coefficients were as follows: Mindfulness (ÃŽ ± = .78); Trait Anxiety (ÃŽ ± = .88); Openness (ÃŽ ± = .73); Parental Nurturance – mother (ÃŽ ± = .96); Parental Nurturance – father (ÃŽ ± = .96). Descriptive Statistics A descriptive analysis of the data obtained across the variables of Mindfulness, Trait Anxiety, Openness and Parental Nurturance is given in Table 1. As shown, the mean score for openness was 3.62, with a standard deviation (SD) of .55. The total results on the measure of Trait Anxiety yielded a mean score of 2.19, with a SD of .59. The mean score for Parental Nurturance was 3.71, with a SD of .79, and the Mindfulness mean is indicated at 2.69, with a SD of .46. Table 1: Presentation of Mean Scores and Standard Deviations from the Measures Employed to assess Openness to Experience, Trait Anxiety, Parental Nurturance and Mindfulness. Inferential Statistics The correlational analysis undertaken to explore the relationship between the dependent variable, Mindfulness, and the independent variables, Openness, Trait Anxiety and Parental Nurturance. These results are presented in Table 2. A significant, positive correlation was found between Mindfulness and Openness (r = .02, df = 3, p Table 2. Correlational Analysis Presenting the Relationship between Mindfulness and the Variables: Openness, Trait Anxiety and Parental Nurturance. * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed). ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). An analysis of the degree of variance (ANOVA) yielded F=19.496, which is indicative of a statistically insignificant effect. Therefore, there is no relationship between the constant and the independent variables as a group. With this information in hand, a regression was undertaken to see what differences exist in each group. These results are given in Table 3. Table 3. Presentation of the Individual Differences between Variables. From this it is clear that Trait Anxiety has the strongest, inverse relationship with Mindfulness, which is a negative relationship. Therefore, lower levels of Trait Anxiety are a strong predictor for Mindfulness. Openness is shown to be an insignificant predictor of Mindfulness, and Parental Nurturance is approaching significance. 4. Discussion The results of this study partially meet the predictions made. Openness to Experience and Parental Nurturance were not demonstrated as positive predictors of Mindfulness, although Parental Nurturance bordered on significance. Trait Anxiety was found to be a negative predictor of Mindfulness, where the lower the level of Trait Anxiety, the higher the level of Mindfulness. These results can be explained in terms of awareness to the environment. Individuals having a high level of Trait Anxiety are unable to be present in the moment since they are subject to cognitive bias, which inhibits the information they are able to process. According to Harvey, Watkins, Mansell and Shafran (2004) individuals with high levels of anxiety have explicit memory bias for concern-relative information. These authors make further reference to the Cognitive Avoidance Theory of Worry, and describe how people who worry excessively have, as a result reduced their awareness of aversive imagery, as well as physio logical and emotional responses, which inhibits emotional processes. Since individuals with high levels of Trait Anxiety are working hard at suppressing unpleasant experiences in terms of physiological, emotional and psychological responses, they are reducing their ability to be Mindful. A key component of Mindfulness is the ability to absorb the environment as a whole, without judgement and being completely present in the moment. Individuals with low levels of Trait Anxiety are able to process their environment without bias, they are not fearful and ashamed, and are not required to be vigilant and suspicious of the environment and others. The qualities are similar to those describe in the description of Mindfulness, and should therefore yield similar outcomes of ‘greater awareness, clarity, and acceptance of present-moment reality’ Kabat-Zinn (1994, 4). From this study, it can be said that the variable of Trait Anxiety is a good predictor of the individual differences in Mindfulness. Further research into the predictive value of other personality variables may aid in the understanding of this phenomenon. Bibliography Baer, R.A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125-143. Brown, K.W. Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. 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